4.8K likes. Witchcraft is the enemy of life (2007;347). Faith in God as the all-powerful, all-merciful father, as creator and foundation of all being, has dethroned the ancestors from the human-made pedestal (2007;334). These pictures of our American ancestors serve as a reminder of the lives they led, the mark they made on America, and (for relatives) the place they occupy in our hearts. The missionaries were met with a “split-level” or “dual system” response. One of the abilities or gifts of the Holy Spirit is to discern or see the activity of spirits in the unseen realm (1999;82). The tendency in South Africa is ancestors pass to linear time (2007;330). For restoration, diviners would recommend the appropriate remedy, a offering of sacrifice, punishment to guilty individuals, or otherwise (1999;72). 1st Jan 1970 Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UKEssays.com. This session is designed to help participants learn African traditional ways of understanding mental/emotional challenges and how this approach can be used as the foundation of treatment in working with people of African ancestry. It is through God and the strength that he provides that we can face the “waters and fires” of this life, and be fully prepared for every good work. Those things, which ye have both learned, and received, and heard, and seen in me, do: and the God of peace shall be with you”. This includes the removal of negative things (such as disease, demons and sin). Welcome to Our Black Ancestry! But if there’s one cultural item that would show the oneness of our common culture, it would be the Manunggul Jar, which was found in the Tabon Cave in Palawan, made by our ancestors around 2,800 years ago. Dr. Paige holds a degree in Economics from Stanford University and an MBA from the University of Michigan Ross School of Business. It is clearly pointed out that the only valid mediator is Jesus Christ: “Jesus saith unto him, I am the way, the truth, and the life: no man cometh unto the Father, but by me” (Joh 14:6). Although African scholars have done some work of the highest of quality in terms of the concept of God in Africa, not much research has gone into other spiritual entities and realities of the African people. Ancestral worship is a two-way relationship, in contrast to the cult of the dead which is one-way (2007;328). In Christian churches, this could often lead to a dual-life or split-level Christian. Among the Zulu the ancestors are considered as mediators (between the Supreme Being) and nothing more. Looking for a flexible role? How Our African Ancestors Made Sound In The Stone Age. The calling to be a Sangoma or shaman is believed to come from various ancestor spirits and your direct ancestor spirits. He is the Comforter and promised to never leave or forsake us. As keepers of law and order, the ancestors act as representatives of ethical values, traditions and activities (2007;333). Free Standard Shipping for … The western world-view was not just spiritually communicated, but also by political and even military action (2007;385). It is at the cross of Christ, an eternal sacrifice for us, so that our sin might be forgiven and that Satan might be utterly defeated (1999;81). Although there is the concept of evil forces, it’s not the same as the Christian view in the sense that there exists a single-ruler over all evil powers. During this period humans developed … 1 year ago 5 min read. In Africa, the world was believed to be inhabited by beings both visible and invisible. Ancestors play a significant role in the day to day live in African society. This is Civil Rights Genealogy to honor our African American ancestors. The recently departed whose time on earth overlapped with people still here are the sasha, the living-dead. Spirit mediums or diviners in Africa are believed to be possessed by ancestors to communicate with the living. But as touching the resurrection of the dead, have ye not read that which was spoken unto you by God, saying, I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob? Our only true mediator is the Eternal High Priest, Jesus Christ. Anderson (2007;326) correctly observes that one of the functions of a diviner is to determine the identity of, and exorcise ‘evil spirits’. The hope was that the experience will be a “cure-all” for all other problems (2007;371). God has provided ways of dealing with evil spirits. There are references in the Bible that prohibit the contacting of the dead (Dt 18:11). There are literally trillions to connect with, and many are just waiting for YOU to reach out. Exercising discernment, is an act of the will and an act of faith. The ancestor is expected to must have lived a morally worthy life, a virtuous life. There is a view that states that ancestors are demonic manifestations meant to derail the faithful (2007;383). Wikipedia defines an ancestor as: “…a parent or (recursively) the parent of an ancestor (i.e., a grandparent, great-grandparent, great-great-grandparent, and so forth)” (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancestor ,17 March 2011). The cyclic model assumes the possibility of a reincarnation of the ancestor as a newborn. Share this: Tweet; More; The Middle and Later Stone Age, which lasted from about 300 000 to 300 years ago in South Africa, was an important time for the African continent. He goes so far as to say that it is the demons which masquerade as ancestors. I give praise to the universe I give praise to mother earth I give praise to all of nature and its beings I give praise to all my guiding spirits I give praise to my ancestors I give praise to all that came before me in this struggle I give praise to my elders I give praise to all those who have cared for me, protected me, guided me and loved me I give praise to…. An example being the transfiguration of Jesus on mountain accompanied by the spirits of Moses and Elijah (2007;382). There are also scriptural indications of an angelic fall, under the leadership of Satan. Two million years ago, various hominid ancestors of modern humans migrated out of Africa. The best place to start is, well, the place where it all started: East Africa, the cradle of human evolution. In return, the ancestors reveal themselves through dreams by stating their names or through calamity, sickness, barrenness or bad luck, and so forth. The Zulus believed that the Supreme Being was in a sense unreachable, so that there was a need for ancestral mediation (1999;73). Until now, the oldest evidence of human ancestors outside of Africa was in Dmanisi, Georgia. The vast majority of Americans of African ancestry in the United States are descendants of the 400,000 enslaved Black people forcibly brought to the New World prior to 1860. Once such group is women. God is concerned with all aspects of salvation (Luke 5:23), not just with the spiritual. Aug 31, 2020 - See the faces of the people of America’s past. And when the multitude heard this, they were astonished at his doctrine.” (verses 29-33). Exorcism in the New Testament context is the act of deliverance of a person or institution or society from its bondage to evil. African theologians and churches are still struggling how to respond appropriately and biblically to the issue of ancestral practices, especially among Christians (2007;337). We've received widespread press coverage since 2003, Your UKEssays purchase is secure and we're rated 4.4/5 on reviews.co.uk. This link is deeply spiritual, and helps to explain the Zulu people’s attitudes to ideas of fertility, life, fortune and misfortune as well as their general quest for a life lived purposefully and with integrity. It also means reaching out to those in the distant past – to the ancients. Witchcraft is described as the human embodiment of evil (2007;344), and the witch takes the place of the devil. The ancestors communicate with the living through various ways. (add any others you wish to give praise to) There have been mistakes in the past when it came to evangelising the African continent. Another intriguing aspect in those involved in the ritual sacrifice is their tendency to say that they are praying to God and their ancestors. The Freedom Series.. In other cultural contexts, some people seek providence from their deceased ancestors; this practice is sometimes known as ancestor worship or, more accurately, ancestor veneration. He uses the example of the building of altars upon which sacrifices are offered to the ancestors and that at such a ritual ceremony, there can be no doubt that the ancestors are invoked; they are the addressees of these prayers and the invocation of God is missing. Christianity is lived to either strengthen groups’ identity with the ancestors or free self from any attachment with the ancestors depending on two main factors. It is clear that the tendency in some churches is to incorporate the ancestral belief in the doctrine of the Communion of Saints (2007;337). When early missionaries came to bring the gospel to Africans, it is clear that they might have believed that over time the African spirit world was hopefully going to dissipate if Africans were given more education and religious instruction (2007;375). In Col. 2:14 – 15 it is written: “Blotting out the handwriting of ordinances that was against us, which was contrary to us, and took it out of the way, nailing it to his cross; And having spoiled principalities and powers, he made a show of them in it.”. Using online resources like http://www.ancestor.co.za or http://ancestry24.com a person can explore the history of ancestors. Our researchers have also excluded those with more than 5 percent African ancestry with the assumption that it’s more likely that their ancestry is known. Another view are that ancestors are co-mediators with Christ. Triebel argues that (2007;336), “if one interprets African religion as theistic, centered on the belief in the one God, one cannot accept that the ancestors have their own independent religious function”. The gender of the person makes no difference whether a person can be an ancestor or not (2007;331). The African people consider this experience not be harmful or diabolical; they are rather seen as friendly and welcome the spirit to remain briefly. Copyright © 2003 - 2020 - UKEssays is a trading name of All Answers Ltd, a company registered in England and Wales. All work is written to order. African Ancestry was founded in 2003 by Dr. Rick Kittles and Gina Paige in Washington, D.C. Dr. Kittles was one of the earliest geneticists to trace the ancestry of Africans through DNA testing. I want to write very briefly here about the various kinds of spirits that can be part of a shamanic calling and become your guides or possess you as you do the work of the ancestors. Company Registration No: 4964706. We extract your DNA and compare it against the world’s largest database of African DNA. Most of them came from a small section (approximately 300 miles long) of the Atlantic coast between the Congo and Gambia rivers in East Africa. Knowing where you're from is a critical component of knowing who you are. © 2020 African Ancestry, Inc. All rights reserved. The missionaries left no room for supernatural realities such as earthly spirits and spirit possession, witchcraft, ancestors and magic. The communication with ancestors is a dynamic one whereby they still relate to the living and still influence the lives of the living (2007;331). The evangelical movement in Africa declared Christ’s sovereign rule over the spirits, but prefers to say little about the spirit world and concentrating rather on the salvation of the individual’s soul. The general belief is that ancestors are nearer to God and have mystical powers (2007;333). The book of Revelation is notable for its presentation of the absolute power which God exercises over the world and restriction of evil (1999;72). The foundational religion of many African groups seems to be ancestor worship. Such thinking was to be expected from people (missionaries) who had been born and bred in a world-view that sought to explain life in rationalistic and scientific ways rather than spiritual ones. Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a university student. Chadwick Boseman On Taking The "Right Test", Erykah Badu Discovers Her Cameroonian Roots, Q-Tip Connects With Jola Ekonting Musicians, The Sister Circle Reconnects With Their Ancestors. Had a proper theological dialogue taken place between the missionaries and the people, undoubtedly the African Christian church scenario would have been different (1999;77). Whether it be a political, religious or intellectual structure. Mbiti observes (2007;365) that ancestor possession occurs in one form or another in practically every African society. The purpose is to bring to every reader, scholar and layman alike, an insight into and perspective of a civilization and heritage which he or she never may have realized exists. Genealogy research comes with many challenges, especially with regard to researching certain subsets of our ancestors. *You can also browse our support articles here >. Most of the mainline churches are well aware of this need and that the current teachings are not fully adequate in assisting them to deal with witchcraft and the fear it brings. But the accepted norm is that the ancestors use dreams to communicate with the living. Among the visible beings were humans, animals and plants. One of the main reasons why ancestor practices play such a prominent role in African religions is because Africa languishes under the yoke of the fear of spirits. ... What our African ancestors wore before western clothing. Back to Africa . Society and Culture Page.. Ancestors’ spirits are also thought to act as mediators between the living and the Creator. Previous genetic research showed that our species interbred with both the Neanderthals and Denisovans, with modern human populations outside of Africa still carrying DNA from both. These were ridiculed as fairy tales and belief in these was labelled as barbaric and primitive (2007;372). In fact, the authorities and cosmic powers in the Pauline letters allude to the way in which supernatural beings, as it were, incarnate themselves in structures. That doesn’t mean it is known, just as it doesn’t mean that those of European descent with 5 percent or less African ancestry are unaware of it. In I Corinthians 10 we learn that idolatry is the same as devil-worship, and one should therefore be careful not to make ancestors bigger than they are: “What say I then? In Acts we have the account of salvation and the burning of evil books in public: “And many that believed came, and confessed, and shewed their deeds. By these actions, ancestors appear to attain a new status equal to that of the Supreme Being. But God is almighty and limits evil and their activities (2007;379). God is not the God of the dead, but of the living. Some scholars think that it is more of veneration than worship, because the issue at stake, example with the Oruuano Movement, is not worship but veneration because “the ancestors are not gods and they never become gods.” (2007;335). portions under the title The Hebrew Heritage of Our West African Ancestors, together with the rights to include our own editorial comments and supplementary information. Daneel (2007;366) says that during the possession trance, the family may discuss their problems with the possessed medium; for they are actually talking with the ancestors. Mar 1, 2017 - Explore Thomitchka Alexis's board "The Gods and Goddesses of Our African Ancestors" on Pinterest. Book An African Ancestry Family Reunion To Africa Today. This is however in contradiction with the Bible. Many of them also which used curious arts brought their books together, and burned them before all men: and they counted the price of them, and found it fifty thousand pieces of silver. The living expect help of the departed in the fight against the evil forces that pervade the world and threaten them at every turn (2007;333). This caused many African Christians to return to traditional ways of resolving issues. Given the range of skills and aptitudes available to Christians as found in the Bible, this type of life need not be (2007;352). Missionaries coming out of such a world-view, who brought the gospel to Africa, preached a message that left Africans with a perception that the God of the Bible could not supply them in all their spiritual needs. For in the resurrection they neither marry, nor are given in marriage, but are as the angels of God in heaven. The Lord is there and we should call upon him (Jer 33:3): “Call unto me, and I will answer thee, and shew thee great and mighty things, which thou knowest not”. As Africans are generally community-oriented people, it is understandable that the relationship between the living and the dead is appreciated and if at all possible maintained (2007;329). A very important point raised by Khatide, is that of the dependency these people have on the ancestors as the guarantors of life. Nyirongo (2007;334) explains the relationship between the living and their dead as “demonic illusions” because, according to him, it is impossible for he living to commune with the dead. Look to these ancestor photographs to learn about family history, reminisce about times gone by and find inspiration to follow in their footsteps. It is for this reason that many missionaries in the past and in the present have regarded ancestor veneration as the centre of African traditional religion and as something in serious conflict to the worship of the true God. In this essay we will focus solely on this “type” of ancestor group. The gift of casting out devils is a precious endowment to the church (1999;83). It is something to be eradicated at all cost. In other words, an ancestor is a person who is deceased and of whom you are a descendent. This gift is of absolute necessity to the body of Christ because it helps to keep the truth and avoid the destructive lies of evil. You or a member of your family takes a simple cheek swab and sends it back to us. The Nigerian theologian, Idowu, states (2007;335): “Certainly, the cults of the ancestors do not constitute African traditional religion; and it is a gross error to equate them with religion â€¦ Thus the cults are a means of communion and communication between those who are living on earth and those who have gone to live in the spirit world of the ancestors”. Among the visible beings were humans, animals and plants. The invisible things included deities, divinities and ancestors. In that case, diviners would be consulted to investigate who among the members of the community had caused a breakdown. A great truth of God’s providence is found in Php 4: 6-9: “Be careful for nothing; but in every thing by prayer and supplication with thanksgiving let your requests be made known unto God. We then determine your present-day country and ethnic group (tribe) of origin in Africa. If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help! Spirit possession by the living-dead is commonly reported. Here, fossils of short people thought to be early H. … In Africa, the world was believed to be inhabited by beings both visible and invisible. We are now in a new family, a godly family with a heavenly Father. Having passed through death, the ancestors are considered as able to communicate with God more effectively the needs of those alive. Our academic experts are ready and waiting to assist with any writing project you may have. Maghbouleh (2007;349) makes an interesting observation that witchcraft is nowhere associated with the devil or Satan in the canonized Jewish texts. Satan tries to deceive us as an angel of light. Good angels are portrayed as powerful agencies for the carrying out of God’s will, there is also a well orchestrated army of evil agencies who counterfeit the activities of those good angels (1999;69). On our People on the Move show, we heard about science challenging our understanding of when our earliest ancestors moved out of the African continent.. Mathew - This traditional idea of this exodus out of Africa at around 50,000 years ago, isn't entirely correct. This is contrasted against the highly organised view in Ephesians 6. In traditional Africa however, ancestors are never referred to, nor considered, as evil spirits. The belief in missionaries was that the converts to Christianity, after attaining some (western-based) education and religious instruction, would simply outgrow the idea of the existence of the spirit world, but this endeavour did not fully realize under the people for the past two centuries (2007;370). Another reason why ancestor practices are common is to endure the hardship of life and to intellectually cope with existential crises and the frustrations that confound them. The Certificates of Ancestry will be available in series. A part of the cause of this is the inadequate western presentation of the gospel in the African context (2007;341). But make no mistake: we may not know the day-to-day eating habits of our ancestors, but we know some things. Their views of the spirit-world is contrasted in many aspects against the New Testament teachings. Such a person does not fully understand the sufficiency of Christ and needs to mature in faith. Finally, brethren, whatsoever things are true, whatsoever things are honest, whatsoever things are just, whatsoever things are pure, whatsoever things are lovely, whatsoever things are of good report; if there be any virtue, and if there be any praise, think on these things. For the church there is a general feeling that the people have not been sufficiently armed to fight against witchcraft and sorcery in spite of many Christian teaching that have been thought (2007;351). Join Face2Face Africa as we take a look at some breath taking traditional wears from tribes all over the African continent. African Ancestry helps people of African descent trace their ancestral roots back to a specific present-day African country and tribe/ethnic group. The living communicate with the dead by regular ritual sacrifice and invocation, the priest or officiant at which is the family head, or the senior group representative where ancestors of larger groups are being addressed (2007;332). Registered office: Venture House, Cross Street, Arnold, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, NG5 7PJ. To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below: If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on UKEssays.com then please: Our academic writing and marking services can help you! “ cure-all ” for all other problems ( 2007 ; 377 ) about family history reminisce... 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